Since the 2008 Financial Crisis, central banks around the world have implemented unprecedented monetary policies through huge asset purchases and unprecedentedly low interest rates. While the Federal Reserve began raising interest rates at the beginning of President Trump's term, they reversed course signficantly in 2019. How is this monetary policy affecting banking systems around the world? Are there alternatives to our current fiat central banking systems? This lecture will explore both the historical gold standard and the transition to modern fiat currencies, as well as the rapidly proliferating cryptocurrency world. We will consider ways in which crypto currencies are similar and different from the historical gold standard.